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Simple Summary#

Defines the construction and usage of MEV bundles by the miners. Provides specification for custom implementation of required node changes so that MEV bundles can be used correctly.


MevBundles are stored by the node and the best bundle is added to the block in front of other transactions. MevBundles are sorted by their adjusted gas price.


We believe that without the adoption of neutral, public, open-source infrastructure for permissionless MEV extraction, MEV risks becoming an insiders' game. We commit as an organisation to releasing reference implementations for participation in fair, ethical, and politically neutral MEV extraction.


The key words MUST, MUST NOT, REQUIRED, SHALL, SHALL NOT, SHOULD, SHOULD NOT, RECOMMENDED, MAY, and OPTIONAL in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119.



A set of transactions that MUST be executed together and MUST be executed at the beginning of the block.

Unit of work#

A transaction, a bundle or a block.


A discernible unit of work that is a part of a bigger unit of work. A transaction is a subunit of a bundle or a block. A bundle is a subunit of a block.

Total gas used#

A sum of gas units used by each transaction from the unit of work.

Average gas price#

Sum of (gas price * total gas used) of all subunits divided by the total gas used of the unit.

Direct coinbase payment#

A value of a transaction with a recipient set to be the same as the coinbase address.

Contract coinbase payment#

A payment from a smart contract to the coinbase address.


A difference between the balance of the coinbase account at the end and at the beginning of the execution of a unit of work. We can measure a transaction profit, a bundle profit, and a block profit.

Balance of the coinbase account changes in the following way

Unit of workBalance Change
Transactionaverage gas price * total gas used + direct coinbase payment + contract coinbase payment
Bundleaverage gas price * total gas used + direct coinbase payment + contract coinbase payment
Blockblock reward + average gas price * total gas used + direct coinbase payment + contract coinbase payment

Adjusted gas price#

Unit of work profit divided by the total gas used by the unit of work.

sv0.1=ฮ”coinbase+โˆ‘TโˆˆUgTpTโˆ‘TโˆˆUgTs_{v0.1} = \frac{\Delta_{coinbase} + \sum_{T\in U}g_Tp_T}{\sum_{T\in U}g_T}

ss: adjusted gas price used to sort bundles.
UU: ordered list of transactions TT
gTg_{T}: gas used by transaction TT.
pTp_{T}: gas price of transaction TT.
ฮ”coinbase\Delta_{coinbase}: coinbase difference from direct payment.


An object with four properties:

transactionsArray<RLP(SignedTransaction)>A list of transactions in the bundle. Each transaction is signed and RLP-encoded.
blockNumberuint64The exact block number at which the bundle can be executed
minTimestampuint64Minimum block timestamp (inclusive) at which the bundle can be executed
maxTimestampuint64Maximum block timestamp (inclusive) at which the bundle can be executed

Bundle construction#

Bundle SHOULD contain transactions with nonces that are following the current nonces of the signing addresses or other transactions preceding them in the same bundle.

A bundle MUST contain at least one transaction. There is no upper limit for the number of transactions in the bundle, however bundles that exceed the block gas limit will always be rejected.

A bundle MAY include a direct coinbase payment or a contract coinbase payment. Bundles that do not contain such payments may lose comparison when their profit is compared with other bundles.

The maxTimestamp value MUST be greater or equal the minTimestamp value.

Accepting bundles from the network#

Node MUST provide a way of exposing a JSON RPC endpoint accepting eth_sendBundle calls (specified here). Such endpoint SHOULD only be accepting calls from MEV-relay but there is no requirement to restrict it through the node source code as it can be done on the infrastructure level.

Bundle eligibility#

Any bundle that is correctly constructed MUST have a blockNumber field set which specifies in which block it can be included. If the node has already progressed to a later block number then such bundle MAY be removed from memory.

Any bundle that is correctly constructed MAY have a minTimestamp and/or a maxTimestamp field set. Default values for both of these fields are 0 and the meaning of 0 is that any block timestamp value is accepted. When these values are not 0, then block.timestamp is compared with them. If the current block.timestamp is greater than the maxTimestamp then the bundle MUST NOT be included in the block and MAY be removed from memory. If the block.timestamp is less than minTimestamp then the bundle MUST NOT be included in the block and SHOULD NOT be removed from memory (it awaits future blocks).

Block construction#

A block MUST either contain one bundle or no bundles. When a bundle is included it MUST be the bundle with the highest adjusted gas price among eligible bundles. The node SHOULD be able to compare a block profit in cases when a bundle is included (MEV block) and when no bundles are included (regular block) and choose a block with the highest profit.

A block with a bundle MUST place the bundle at the beginning of the block and MUST NOT insert any transactions between the bundle transactions.

Bundle eviction#

Node SHOULD be able to limit the number of bundles kept in memory and apply an algorithm for selecting bundles to be evicted when too many eligible bundles have been received.


At most one MevBundle gets included in the block#

There are two reasons for which multiple bundles in a block may cause problems:

  • two bundles may affect each other's profit and so the bundle creator may not be willing to accept a possibility of not being added in the front of the block
  • simulating multiple bundle combinations may be very straining for the node infrastructure and introduce excessive latency into the block creation process

Both of these problems may be addressed in the future versions.

Each bundle needs a blockNumber#

This allows specifying bundles to be included in the future blocks (e.g. just after some smart contracts change their state). This cannot be used to ensure a specific parent block / hash.

Backwards Compatibility#

This change is not affecting consensus and is fully backwards compatible.

Security Considerations#

MevBundles that are awaiting future blocks must be stored by the miner's node and it is important to ensure that there is a mechanism to ensure that the storage is limits are not exceeded (whether they are store in memory or persisted).